So, understanding daily mobility requires defining residential choices in parallel, as well as their place in broader territorial dynamics. Residential choices depend on a number of factors, which, at the same time, depend on very different scales. Previous studies carried out on around 20 cities in different Northern and Southern countries reveal some recurring factors.
Among these, we particularly pay attention to the distance to work places or the schooling possibilities for each member of the household, the accessibility to various modes of transport developed at local level, the proximity to certain places of activity, such as shopping centers, recreation sites, etc.
For certain households, workplaces or study sites, to discuss only two, can involve very variable scales: from the local schooling options the district, the residence municipality to the distance to the central business district, and sometimes even more, as in those cases where the couple may work in two different cities. For a given space, these local mobilities represent an important part of the daily traffic using various modes of public and private transport. In addition, there are trips recorded on a much larger scale and for which the location in question is only an obligatory throughout for example a major interchange.
These complementary mobilities concern the transport of goods, certain professions, and certain transfers, which may take place on a regional, national or international scale. These other types of mobility add even more scale ranges. Thus, understanding the impact of flash floods on mobility presupposes a crossing between the dynamics of the phenomenon, on the one hand, and daily and residential mobility, on the other hand. This requires a special consideration of the multiple scales involved. As we have just seen, spatial and temporal scales are essential because of the very nature of the phenomena observed.
However, other scales can be mobilized to better understand how hydrometeorological and social dynamics interact during a particular event. We now aim to identify which scales can be mobilized so as to give a relevant account of what is at stake in this interaction. Indrajit Pal, Landslide and flash floods are hard to predict and control but well-planned mitigation measures could reduce the risk to lives and property to a great extent. There are many approaches to reduce the potential impacts of landslide and flash flood hazards. The combination of nonstructural measures and small-scale structural measures could be more effective in managing flash flood risk.
Predicting magnitude and exact location of flash floods are still challenging and it is not necessary to take large-scale structural measures such as constructing embankment, dams, and levees. There are many nonstructural measures that can reduce the impact of floods such as land-use planning, building construction codes, soil management, acquisition policies, insurance and risk transfer, awareness raising, public information, emergency system, and recovery plans.
The nonstructural measures are suitable for local community because of its low cost and sustainability. Moreover, the small-scale structural measures are useful if community people use local materials such as check dams, small-scale levees, and sand bag embankments.
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The implementation of plans and policies should include flash floods at national and regional levels. Integration between flood management policies, water resource management, and disaster management plan needs to be taken as a priority. A community flash flood risk management committee could be a good mechanism to involve community members and local authorities in order to carry out the local and indigenous knowledge.
Isabelle Braud, The method relies on rainfall information and initial moisture conditions. Rainfall thresholds are defined in such a way that the flow rate calculated because of the rainfall amount corresponds to the overflow rate of the watercourse. Douinot et al. Although they obtained encouraging results, these still need to be confirmed by more case studies. Gourley et al. In comparison with the FFG method, the authors showed improvement in predictions when using a spatially distributed hydrological model, fueled by input radar data and then used in prediction mode.
Barthold et al. Some authors have explored how the uncertainties related to these rain forecasts intensity, location of the most intense cells can be taken into account in forecast chains leading to discharge ensemble forecasts. For example, Vincendon et al. Amengual et al. Tao et al. They were able to compare different rain products, different methods of data assimilation and they showed that the assimilation of discharge data led to very promising results.
Tekeli et al. In terms of hydrological modeling tools, several forecasting chains are now available. Nguyen et al. This model is implemented with parameter values defined a priori , drawn from the literature and already acquired knowledge, but it is not calibrated. A sensitivity analysis, conducted with simulated rainfall fields, showed acceptable performance for an uncalibrated model. Artinyan et al. This system relies on real-time rain gauge data.
The systems available in France are presented in the following section. Landslides, flash flood , and toes erosion induced by incessant heavy rainfall in the Higher Himalayan region led to a massive loss of human lives, infrastructure, and property. The details of the same are summarized in Table It is to be noticed that apart from loss of human lives other losses in the disaster-affected districts are comparable.
It is due to the loss of human lives in Mandakini valley that most people consider disaster to be restricted to Rudraprayag district. Table District wise losses incurred in the state due to the disaster of June Besides direct losses and cost of search, rescue, and evacuation, the state incurred heavy loss of revenue due to the disaster. Economy of the state is highly dependent upon pilgrimage and tourism and there was a steep decline in the number of people visiting the state on the aftermath of the disaster Table Resumption of normal pilgrim and tourist inflow is sure to take some time and this would require a dedicated effort to convince the potential visitors that Uttarakhand is safe to visit.
Pilgrim footfall over major shrines in the disaster-affected area in the period — On the aftermath of the disaster, the state waived off tax dues, particularly on tourism and hotel industry. Electricity and water tariff of the entire disaster-affected population was also waived off. Moreover, in view of severity of the disaster impact, the state also extended relief on items that are not generally covered by State Disaster Response Fund SDRF guidelines and raised the quantum of the admissible relief by many times.
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In order to help them sustain during the crisis period, relief was also provided to commercial enterprises that are not generally covered by SDRF norms. After a flash flood , the damage caused on the impacted buildings and territories, as well as the trauma experienced by the individuals, generates decisions that are variable case by case with respect to the area of residence. These victims are variably impacted based on anterior choices that were made on matters of human mobility in the area — covered in the previous section.
The reactions to affected buildings, whether housing, commercial or industrial establishments, or even public buildings, are filled with emotion and cannot be summarized by the simple decision to repair or abandon the location. An example is provided by the case study in the village of Collias — which has since become a case study for matters of French expropriation permitted by the Barnier law.
The catastrophic flood of — which resulted, at this location, in the unfortunate concomitance of peak discharges of the two rivers — heavily impacted 95 residences, and even completely destroyed some of them. Thanks to the intuition and vigilance of the mayor at the time, the anticipated evacuation of inhabitants ensured that there were no victims to mourn.
In response to this event, local authorities, accompanied by State services, inaugurated the possibility provided by the recent Barnier Law to compensate the most exposed inhabitants. The decision was made to apply the expropriation procedure intended by the law 15 and to delocalize all affected buildings into a zone exempt of risk [ JOU 16 ].
Interviews 16 carried out with the mayor responsible in , as well as with 14 of the village inhabitants — of which several were directly affected by the expropriation — allowed a measure of the difficulties, numerous and complex, related to following such a decision to be taken.
Some inhabitants, shocked by the magnitude of the event and the damage done to their living space, easily accepted the offer of compensation for their goods and the delocalization plan. They had new houses built, in which they have since lived, sheltered from floods. Others, however, could not accept this idea of abandoning their goods and took up a position of resistance against the will of local and national authorities.
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