Each state has demographic, political and economic goals different from those of their neighbouring or other countries," Diouf, who is the former Senegalese president, said. He urged Francophone member countries not to give up the dream of a "Francophone visa", pointing out that it took Europe time to reach the Schengen accord. Businessmen, artists and intellectuals intend to petition heads of State and government who will attend the Kinshasa summit on the problems facing the free movement of people in the Francophone space.
Many people who were to attend the World French Language Forum held last July in Quebec, Canada, could not be present because of the lack of visa, despite the invitation letters duly signed by organizers. Preambule 1.
Vive toutes ces nations qui ont rejoint la Francophonie! Lettre d'information de l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Our Magazine is now printed in French. For a long time, the histories of the Jesuits and of anti-Jesuitism remained intertwined. Practiced in the daily logging of its activities, 2 the Society of Jesus was wasting no time in writing its golden legend, 3 not least that of its foreign missions, 4 even as its opponents were busy publishing its Black Legend.
While one side went about extolling its diverse apostolic works, whether preaching, confession, education and pedagogy, or spiritual direction, the other heaped up blame for seductive indoctrination, for hubris, for a potentially regicidal love of power, for lax morals and an authoritarian form of education begetting lies and denunciation. Then positions shifted. Some Jesuits were actively involved in this process. Thereafter, the historiographical currents studying religions, Catholicism first among them, flow more smoothly.
This period witnessed the confrontation between two irreconcilable historiographies that, grounded in the conflictual aftermath of the French Revolution, mirrored each other. The Jesuits embodied the will to re-establish an earlier regime, complete with its philosophy and politics. They retained a quasi-monopoly on the writing of their recent history, which, when delegated, remained firmly under their close supervision.
The apologetic drive expressed itself in certain chronological choices and in the strength of its focus on the re-foundation period. In connection with the New Society, the development of two societies of priests inspired by the Jesuits after their suppression was the subject of several papers.
Destroyed in , smitten and thrashed, they rose again without anybody noticing. They did not merely rise: while the question of whether there were Jesuits hung, they effortlessly won over our thirty or forty thousand priests, bamboozled them and are leading them Heaven knows where! In his view, King Charles X r. Some revolutionary fraternization in the spring of broke off the hostilities but the truce was short lived. And I am not confusing you, the clerical party, with the Church, anymore than I would confuse the mistletoe with the oak.
You are the parasites of the Church, the disease of the Church [laughter]. You are not the believers but the sectarians of a faith you do not understand.
A Bibliography of Works about Durkheim
Under the Second Empire nothing significant was published about the Society of Jesus. Despite being officially banned, the Society continued to be hounded.
The Society of Jesus maintains with our society no social, familial, proprietary or patriotic bonds since the world is its home and the world is its exile. It is encamped on our land much as might an occupation army […] and it would even sometimes treat us as a dependency, for it has subdivided France into Provinces for its own purpose.
To sum up, the Jesuit is neither our contemporary nor our compatriot. He is not our contemporary because he thinks three hundred years backwards! Or our compatriot because he rejects the very essence of fatherland. Against the background of the Dreyfus Affair, the laws of July on associations and of July against congregations forced 30, members of religious congregations out of the country.
In , there appeared the translation of a German synoptic essay authored by Heinrich Boehmer — , with an introduction and notes by Protestant-raised historian Gabriel Monod — Indeed, its missionary work was respected, if not admired, as complementary to the colonial order insofar as more than a quarter of French Jesuits were missionaries in , a percentage that would remain static until In , the same Piolet pointed out that seventy-five percent of the 6, missionaries in the world were French. The man of God—not necessarily a Jesuit—recognizes grace in the spiritual consolation visited upon him in his travails.
During and after the war, cracks soon materialized though the framing of internal criticism represented a novelty. Its publication was delayed as the manuscript was confiscated by the German police occupying Enghien during the war.
Ultramontane in Rome, Gallican in Versailles, they authorize in China highly superstitious practices […]. Because of the affection and veneration they inspire, good Jesuits stop most Catholics from seeing what the others are up to. They serve to shroud their dubious maneuvers and thus work equally for the good of the Society […]. The Society wants to rule the rulers of the day, whoever they may be, ready to prostitute itself to their whims if needs be.
There we have our brothers of yesteryear, religious who were no Saints, and here the cohort of martyrs, on whose countenance I wish to close for being those whom Saint Ignatius recognizes the most authentic Jesuits. The centuries-long conflict ended on this ultimate bout. Thereafter, Jesuits would only exceptionally be suspected of enmity towards the French nation or the democratic republican institutions. Time had come for the Society of Jesus to spread its wings with some of its members devoting themselves to scientific and academic research. The pro-Jesuit editorial effort was extensive but its quality uneven.
Brimming with data, the project still evinced an apologetic intent even though by then nothing suggested that an on-going Jesuit presence in France needed any justification. Works on the history of education lay bare the diverging concepts of two Jesuits. Padberg b. Riding the wave of the Colonial Exposition, Alexandre Brou published a history of Jesuit missionaries in the edifying narrative tradition, 68 and lay author Paul Lesourd — set forth an overview of the history of missions.
The military defeat of June , the occupation of the country, and the instauration of the Vichy regime rocked French society to its foundations and, within it, a Society of Jesus in full process of normalization. Along with an almost unanimous ecclesiastical hierarchy, the provincials adopted a stance inspired by the principle of guarantee of unity allied to loyalty towards the government in place. The majority of Jesuits followed suit in order to better partake in a re-Christianization drive.
However, while carrying out their pastoral duties, a minority opted for clandestine activities of spiritual, intellectual, and political resistance, most notably in the Lyon region.
- Bruno Bernardi.
- Menu de navigation?
- Queer Ecologies: Sex, Nature, Politics, Desire.
- HIS KINGDOM COME: A NOVEL!
A third group was held captive. The resulting awkwardness manifest at the liberation was never articulated and the leadership roles were passed on under the guise of a generational handover. The visitor had the power of control, decisions, and appointment of superiors and rectors in whichever province he was visiting. Such an atmosphere was not conducive to recording the internal history of the recent past.
More recent events were reported in roundabout ways bypassing ecclesiastical censorship.
Dossiers du CERI | Sciences Po CERI
After Auguste Valensin — had died, his brother Albert edited his spiritual diary, 77 and Henri de Lubac — his correspondence with philosopher Maurice Blondel — ; the book—whose author was at the time prohibited from publishing theology—got reviewed. A public figure 80 with an acknowledged scientific track record, he was marginalized by the Society while his writings circulated in secret.
He had, before his death, entrusted his works to a lay friend to publish. The council era offered a generation of Jesuits specialized in the humanities the opportunity to advance a historiographical overhaul. De Certeau stayed put but his insertion in academia in the late 60s early 70s placed him in a unique position. He further disputed their version of a history founded in the full harmony with modernity; he discerned enduring forms of intransigence in its midst. Yet, ideological stances nevertheless take shape, and not randomly, across the different academic disciplines.
As such, considerable and persistent cleavages, from conservative to progressive, differentiate the fields from each other. The analysis of participation in the Quebec student strike in by department and faculty at the undergraduate level confirms this observation.
Système éducatif en Côte d'Ivoire
Our analysis proceeds in three stages. First, we define the departments or faculties as distinctive political subcultures based on their participation in the strike. In a second step, we seek to assess whether the degrees and types of militancy in the humanities and social sciences and in the natural and applied sciences have changed over recent decades. In a third step, we then try to understand why some disciplines are more militant and progressive than others.