In he was instrumental to the founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research. Anxious to combine the themes of personal transformation found in the works of Arthur Rimbaud with the politics of Karl Marx, Breton joined the French Communist Party in , from which he was expelled in During this time, he survived mostly off the sale of paintings from his art gallery. Under Breton's direction, surrealism became a European movement that influenced all domains of art, and called into question the origin of human understanding and human perceptions of things and events.
Breton, had been insulted by Ehrenburg -- along with all fellow surrealists -- in a pamphlet which said, among other things, that surrealists were "pederasts". Breton slapped Ehrenburg several times on the street, which led to surrealists being expelled from the Congress.
In Breton accepted a cultural commission from the French government to travel to Mexico. After a conference held at the National Autonomous University of Mexico about surrealism, Breton stated after getting lost in Mexico City as no one was waiting for him at the airport "I don't know why I came here. Mexico is the most surrealist country in the world". However, visiting Mexico provided the opportunity to meet Trotsky. Breton and other surrealists sought refuge via a long boat ride from Patzcuaro to the surreal town of Erongaricuaro. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were among the visitors to the hidden community of intellectuals and artists.
Life outside art. Breton was an avid collector of art, ethnographic material, and unusual trinkets. He was particularly interested in materials from the northwest coast of North America. He subsequently rebuilt the collection, which was preserved by family members from the time of his death until , at which time his books, art, and ethnographic materials were auctioned by Calmels Cohen.
Arman November 17, — October 22, , was a French-born Americanartist. Born Armand Pierre Fernandez in Nice, France, Arman is a painter who moved from using the objects as paintbrushes "allures d'objet" to using them as the painting itself. Arman's father, Antonio Fernandez, an antiques dealer in Nice, was also an amateur artist and photographer, as well as a cellist.
From his father, Arman learned oil painting and photography. After receiving his bachelor's degree in philosophy and mathematics in , Arman began studying at the Ecole Nationale d'Art Decoratif in Nice. The trio would bond closely on a subsequent hitchhiking tour of the nations of Europe.
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During this time he also served in the French military, completing his tour of duty as a medical orderly during the Indo-Chinese War. Early in the development of his career, it was apparent that Arman's concept of the accumulation of vast quantities of the same objects was to remain a significant component of his art.
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Ironically, Arman had originally focused more attention on his abstract paintings, considering them to be of more consequence than his early accumulations of postage stamps. Only when he witnessed viewer reaction to his first accumulation in did he fully recognize the power of such art. In , he began welding together accumulations of the same kinds of metal objects, such as axes as pictured below. Inspired by an exhibition for the German Dadaist, Kurt Schwitters, in Arman began working on "Cachets", his first major artistic undertaking.
Arman was signing with his first name as an homage to Van Gogh, who signed his works "Vincent" , in , he chose to change the spelling of his name from Armand to Arman. Nevertheless, he continued to use "Arman" as his public persona.
From Arman developed his most recognizable style, beginning with his two most renowned concepts: "Accumulation" and "Poubelle". Accumulations were collections of common and identical objects which he arranged in polyester castings or within Plexiglas cases. His first welded accumulations were created in The "Poubelles" were collections of strewn refuse.
These works began to garner the attention of the European art community. They were reassessing the concept of art and the artist for a 20th Century consumer society by reasserting the humanistic ideals in the face of industrial expansion.
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In , Arman made his debut in the United States, the country which was to become his home. During this period, Arman explored creation via destruction. Arman can be seen in Andy Warhol's film Dinner at Daley's , a documentation of a dinner performance by the Fluxus artist Daniel Spoerri that Warhol filmed on March 5, Throughout his portrait screen test film, Arman sits in profile, looking down, appearing to be entranced in his reading, seemingly unaware of Warhol's camera, only making small gestures, rubbing his eyes and licking the corner of his mouth.
Warhol owned two of Arman's Poubelles and another accumulation called Amphetamines , which were put up for sale at Sotheby'sauction of the Andy Warhol Collection in May Enamored with the scene in New York, Arman took up residency in the city, just after his first exhibition at the Cordier Ekstrom. In he would become an American citizen. In New York, first at the Chelsea Hotel, and later at his more official studios, Arman began work on ever increasingly ambitious projects.
There were varied expansions of the Accumulations, their content included tools, watches, clocks, furniture, automobile parts, jewelry, and, of course, music instruments in various stages of dismemberment.
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Completed in , the sculpture is an eighteen-meter high accumulation of sixty automobiles embedded in over forty thousand pounds of concrete. Standing in once war-torn Beirut, the thirty-two meter monument consists of eighty-three tanks and military vehicles. Arman married in to the electronic music composer Eliane Radigue two daughters, Marion, and Anne ; one son Yves Arman, deceased in He then married in , Corice Canton one daughter, Yasmine ; one son, Philippe He had a sixth and last child, Yves Cesar, , born out of wedlock.
Also active as a journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishmentDada movement. Under the influence of Adrian Maniu, the adolescent Tzara became interested in Symbolism and co-founded the magazine Simbolul with Ion Vinea with whom he also wrote experimental poetry and painter Marcel Janco.
There, Tzara's shows at the Cabaret Voltaire and Zunfthaus zur Waag, as well as his poetry and art manifestos, became a main feature of early Dadaism. His work represented Dada's nihilisticside, in contrast with the more moderate approach favored by Hugo Ball. A forerunner of automatist techniques, Tzara eventually rallied with Breton's Surrealism, and, under its influence, wrote his celebrated utopianpoem The Approximate Man. During the final part of his career, Tzara combined his humanist and anti-fascistperspective with a communist vision, joining the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War and the French Resistance during World War II, and serving a term in the National Assembly.
Having spoken in favor of liberalization in the People's Republic of Hungary just before the Revolution of , he distanced himself from the French Communist Party, of which he was by then a member. In , he was among the intellectuals who protested against French actions in the Algerian War. Tristan Tzara was an influential author and performer, whose contribution is credited with having created a connection from Cubism and Futurism to theBeat Generation, Situationism and various currents in rock music. The friend and collaborator of many modernist figures, he was the lover of dancer Maja Kruscek in his early youth and was later married to Swedish artist and poet Greta Knutson.
Samyro , a partial anagram of Samy Rosenstock , was used by Tzara from his debut and throughout the early s. A number of undated writings, which he probably authored as early as , bear the signature Tristan Ruia , and, in summer of , he was signing his pieces with the name Tristan. In the s, Rosenstock's collaborator and later rival Ion Vinea claimed that he was responsible for coining the Tzara part of his pseudonym in Tzara , in although there is a possibility that he was signing his texts long after committing them to paper.
Samy Rosenstock legally adopted his new name in , after filing a request with Romania's Ministry of the Interior. His parents were Jewish Romanians who reportedly spoke Yiddish as their first language; his father Filip and grandfather Ilie were entrepreneurs in the forestry business.
Owing to the Romanian Kingdom's discrimination laws, the Rosenstocks were not emancipated, and thus Tzara was not a full citizen of the country until after He moved to Bucharest at the age of eleven, and attended the Schemitz-Tierin boarding school. Reputedly, Janco and Vinea provided the funds. Like Vinea, Tzara was also close to their young colleague Jacques G.
Costin, who was later his self-declared promoter and admirer.
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Despite their young age, the three editors were able to attract collaborations from established Symbolist authors. Alongside their close friend and mentor Adrian Maniu an Imagist who had been Vinea's tutor , they included N. Stoika, as well as from journalist and lawyer Poldi Chapier. In its inaugural issue, the journal even printed a poem by one of the leading figures in Romanian Symbolism, Alexandru Macedonski.
Simbolul also featured illustrations by Maniu, Millian and Iosif Iser.
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Although the magazine ceased print in December , it played an important part in shaping Romanian literature of the period. Literary historian Paul Cernat sees Simbolul as a main stage in Romania's modernism, and credits it with having brought about the first changes from Symbolism to the radical avant-garde.
Also according to Cernat, the collaboration between Samyro, Vinea and Janco was an early instance of literature becoming "an interface between arts", which had for its contemporary equivalent the collaboration between Iser and writers such as Ion Minulescu and Tudor Arghezi. Although Maniu parted with the group and sought a change in style which brought him closer to traditionalist tenets, Tzara, Janco and Vinea continued their collaboration.